Effects of alveolar recruitment maneuvers on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Effects of alveolar recruitment maneuvers on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Intensive Care Med. 2014 Aug 6;

Authors: Suzumura EA, Figueiró M, Normilio-Silva K, Laranjeira L, Oliveira C, Buehler AM, Bugano D, Passos Amato MB, Ribeiro Carvalho CR, Berwanger O, Cavalcanti AB

Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
METHODS: We conducted a search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Scopus, and Web of Science (from inception to July 2014) databases for all (i.e. no language restriction) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of ARMs versus no ARMs in adults with ARDS. Four teams of two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of the studies identified during the search and appraised the risk of bias and extracted data from those which were assessed as meeting the inclusion criteria. Data were pooled using the random-effects model. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to establish monitoring boundaries to limit global type I error due to repetitive testing for our primary outcome (in-hospital mortality). The GRADE system was used to rate the quality of evidence.
RESULTS: Our database search identified ten RCTs (1,594 patients, 612 events) which satisfied the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis assessing the effect of ARMs on in-hospital mortality showed a risk ratio (RR) of 0.84 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.95; I (2) = 0 %], although the quality of evidence was considered to be low due to the risk of bias in the included trials and the indirectness of the evidence-that is, ARMs were usually conducted together with other ventilatory interventions which may affect the outcome of interest. There were no differences in the rates of barotrauma (RR 1.11; 95 % CI 0.78-1.57; I (2) = 0 %) or need for rescue therapies (RR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.41-1.40; I (2) = 56 %). Most trials found no difference between groups in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. The TSA showed that the available evidence for the effect of ARMs on in-hospital mortality is precise in the case of a type I error of 5 %, but it is not precise with a type I error of 1 %.
CONCLUSIONS: Although ARMs may decrease the mortality of patients with ARDS without increasing the risk for major adverse events, current evidence is not definitive. Large-scale ongoing trials addressing this question may provide data better applicable to clinical practice.

PMID: 25097070 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Comparison of femorofemoral and femorojugular configurations during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe ARDS.

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Comparison of femorofemoral and femorojugular configurations during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe ARDS.

Intensive Care Med. 2014 Aug 8;

Authors: Guervilly C, Dizier S, Thomas G, Jaussaud N, Morera P, Hraiech S, Klazen F, Forel JM, Adda M, Roch A, Collart F, Papazian L

PMID: 25102987 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Quality of dying in the ICU: is it worse for patients admitted from the hospital ward compared to those admitted from the emergency department?

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Quality of dying in the ICU: is it worse for patients admitted from the hospital ward compared to those admitted from the emergency department?

Intensive Care Med. 2014 Aug 13;

Authors: Long AC, Kross EK, Engelberg RA, Downey L, Nielsen EL, Back AL, Curtis JR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Although most intensive care unit (ICU) admissions originate in the emergency department (ED), a substantial number of admissions arrive from hospital wards. Patients transferred from the hospital ward often share clinical characteristics with those admitted from the ED, but family expectations may differ. An understanding of the impact of ICU admission source on family perceptions of end-of-life care may help improve patient and family outcomes by identifying those at risk for poor outcomes.
DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cohort study of patients with chronic illness and acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation who died after admission to an ICU in any of the 14 participating hospitals in the Seattle-Tacoma area between 2003 and 2008 (n = 1,500).
MEASUREMENTS: Using regression models adjusted for hospital site and patient-, nurse- and family-level characteristics, we examined associations between ICU admission source (hospital ward vs. ED) and (1) family ratings of satisfaction with ICU care; (2) family and nurse ratings of quality of dying; (3) chart-based indicators of palliative care.
MAIN RESULTS: Admission from the hospital ward was associated with lower family ratings of quality of dying [β -0.90, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -1.54, -0.26, p = 0.006] and satisfaction (total score β -3.97, 95 % CI -7.89, -0.05, p = 0.047; satisfaction with care domain score β -5.40, 95 % CI -9.44, -1.36, p = 0.009). Nurses did not report differences in quality of dying. Patients from hospital wards were less likely to have family conferences [odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 95 % CI 0.52, 0.88, p = 0.004] or discussion of prognosis in the first 72 h after ICU admission (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.56, 0.91, p = 0.007) but were more likely to receive spiritual care (OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.93, p = 0.003) or have life support withdrawn (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.82, p = 0.025).
CONCLUSION: Admission from the hospital ward is associated with family perceptions of a lower quality of dying and less satisfaction with ICU care. Differences in receipt of palliative care suggest that family of patients from the hospital ward receive less communication. Nurse ratings of quality of dying did not significantly differ by ICU admission source, suggesting dissimilarities between family and nurse perspectives. This study identifies a patient population at risk for poor quality palliative and end-of-life care. Future studies are needed to identify interventions to improve care for patients who deteriorate on the wards following hospital admission.

PMID: 25116294 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Consensus summary statement of the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care : A statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.

Consensus summary statement of the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care : A statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.

Intensive Care Med. 2014 Aug 20;

Authors: Le Roux P, Menon DK, Citerio G, Vespa P, Bader MK, Brophy GM, Diringer MN, Stocchetti N, Videtta W, Armonda R, Badjatia N, Böesel J, Chesnut R, Chou S, Claassen J, Czosnyka M, De Georgia M, Figaji A, Fugate J, Helbok R, Horowitz D, Hutchinson P, Kumar M, McNett M, Miller C, Naidech A, Oddo M, Olson D, O’Phelan K, Provencio JJ, Puppo C, Riker R, Robertson C, Schmidt M, Taccone F

Abstract
Neurocritical care depends, in part, on careful patient monitoring but as yet there are little data on what processes are the most important to monitor, how these should be monitored, and whether monitoring these processes is cost-effective and impacts outcome. At the same time, bioinformatics is a rapidly emerging field in critical care but as yet there is little agreement or standardization on what information is important and how it should be displayed and analyzed. The Neurocritical Care Society in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, and the Latin America Brain Injury Consortium organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference to begin to address these needs. International experts from neurosurgery, neurocritical care, neurology, critical care, neuroanesthesiology, nursing, pharmacy, and informatics were recruited on the basis of their research, publication record, and expertise. They undertook a systematic literature review to develop recommendations about specific topics on physiologic processes important to the care of patients with disorders that require neurocritical care. This review does not make recommendations about treatment, imaging, and intraoperative monitoring. A multidisciplinary jury, selected for their expertise in clinical investigation and development of practice guidelines, guided this process. The GRADE system was used to develop recommendations based on literature review, discussion, integrating the literature with the participants’ collective experience, and critical review by an impartial jury. Emphasis was placed on the principle that recommendations should be based on both data quality and on trade-offs and translation into clinical practice. Strong consideration was given to providing pragmatic guidance and recommendations for bedside neuromonitoring, even in the absence of high quality data.

PMID: 25138226 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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How to choose an anesthesia ventilator?

How to choose an anesthesia ventilator?

Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2014 Aug 16;

Authors: Coisel Y, Millot A, Carr J, Castagnoli A, Pouzeratte Y, Verzilli D, Futier E, Jaber S

Abstract
During the past few years, many manufacturers have developed a new generation anesthesia ventilators or anesthesia workstations with innovative technology and introduced so-called new ventilatory modes in the operating room. The aim of this article is to briefly explain how an anesthesia ventilator works, to describe the main differences between the technologies used, to describe the main criteria for evaluating technical and pneumatic performances and to list key elements not to be forgotten during the process of acquiring an anesthesia ventilator.

PMID: 25138358 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

J Med Ethics. 2014 Aug 20;

Authors: Gauthier S, Mausbach J, Reisch T, Bartsch C

Abstract
While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-‘suicide tourists’-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding ‘suicide tourism’ is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries.

PMID: 25142806 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Modulation of Stress versus Time Product during Mechanical Ventilation Influences Inflammation as Well as Alveolar Epithelial and Endothelial Response in Rats.

Modulation of Stress versus Time Product during Mechanical Ventilation Influences Inflammation as Well as Alveolar Epithelial and Endothelial Response in Rats.

Anesthesiology. 2014 Aug 19;

Authors: Spieth PM, Silva PL, Garcia CS, Ornellas DS, Samary CS, Moraes L, Bentes M, Morales MM, Kasper M, Güldner A, Huhle R, Koch T, Pelosi P, de Abreu MG, Rocco PR

Abstract
BACKGROUND:: Mechanical ventilation can lead to lung biotrauma when mechanical stress exceeds safety thresholds. The authors investigated whether the duration of mechanical stress, that is, the impact of a stress versus time product (STP), influences biotrauma. The authors hypothesized that higher STP levels are associated with increased inflammation and with alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury.
METHODS:: In 46 rats, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (acute lung inflammation) or saline (control) was administered intratracheally. Both groups were protectively ventilated with inspiratory-to-expiratory ratios 1:2, 1:1, or 2:1 (n = 12 each), corresponding to low, middle, and high STP levels (STPlow, STPmid, and STPhigh, respectively). The remaining 10 animals were not mechanically ventilated.
RESULTS:: In animals with mild acute lung inflammation, but not in controls: (1) messenger RNA expression of interleukin-6 was higher in STPhigh (28.1 ± 13.6; mean ± SD) and STPlow (28.9 ± 16.0) versus STPmid (7.4 ± 7.5) (P < 0.05); (2) expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products was increased in STPhigh (3.6 ± 1.6) versus STPlow (2.3 ± 1.1) (P < 0.05); (3) alveolar edema was decreased in STPmid (0 [0 to 0]; median, Q1 to Q3) compared with STPhigh (0.8 [0.6 to 1]) (P < 0.05); and (4) expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were higher in STPlow (3.0 ± 1.8) versus STPhigh (1.2 ± 0.5) and STPmid (1.4 ± 0.7) (P < 0.05), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:: In the mild acute lung inflammation model used herein, mechanical ventilation with inspiratory-to-expiratory of 1:1 (STPmid) minimized lung damage, whereas STPhigh increased the gene expression of biological markers associated with inflammation and alveolar epithelial cell injury and STPlow increased markers of endothelial cell damage.

PMID: 25141026 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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